Ammonia
NH3

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General Characteristics Health Hazards Material Recommendations
A colorless, nonflammable and liquefied gas with a strong smell A Toxic Product, highly irritating to the mucous membranes and eyes. Contact with the skin causes severe burns. Use iron and steel. Avoid copper, tin and zinc
TLV-TWA Flammable Limits DOT Class / Label
25 ppm 15 - 28% 2.2 / Nonflammable
Molecular Weight Specific Gravity Specific Volume
17.03 0.597 @ 70 F 22.7 cu.ft./lb @ 70 F
CGA Valve Outlet CAS Registry No. UN Number
705/110 Anhydrous
660 Electronic
7664-41-7 1005
National Stock Number (NSN) Applicable to Ammonia MIL Specs/ Fed Specs
MSDS for Ammonia


Grade
Part #
Purity Minimum Cylinder
Size
Volume
LBS
Pressure
@ 70 F
Comments
Electronic
465100
99.999%
Liquid phase
044
005

50
5
114
114

None

Anhydrous
401400
99.99% Min.
Liquid phase
126
044
150
50
114
114
Supercritical Fluid
407600
SFC A31 34 114

Uses: Ammonia is shipped as a liquified gas under its own vapor pressure of 114 psig. The oldest commercial refrigerant known and still in use today. Most extensive use is in soil fertilization. This application is used in the form of salts, nitrates and urea.

It is the simplest stable compound of these elements and serves as a starting material for the production of many commercially important nitrogen compounds. Pure ammonia was first pre-pared by Joseph Priestley in 1774, and its exact composition was determined by Claude-Louis Berthollet in 1785.

Ammonia is highly soluble in water, forming an alkaline solution called ammonium hydroxide. Moreover, it becomes highly reactive when dissolved in water and readily combines with
many chemicals. Ammonia is easily liquefied by compression or by cooling to about -33° C (-27.4° F). In returning to the gaseous state, it absorbs substantial amounts of heat from its surroundings (i.e., one gram of ammonia absorbs 327 calories of heat). Because of this property, it is frequently employed as a coolant in refrigerating and air-conditioning equipment.

The chief commercial method of producing ammonia is by the Haber-Bosch process, which involves the direct synthesis of the compound from its constituent elements. Ammonia from the
Haber-Bosch process is supplemented by ammonia obtained as a by-product of coke ovens.
The major use of ammonia is as a fertilizer. It is most commonly applied directly to the soil from tanks containing the liquefied gas. Additional quantities are converted into ammonium nitrate,
ammonium phosphate, and other salts that also are utilized primarily in commercial fertilizers. In the textile industry ammonia is used in the manufacture of synthetic fibers such as nylon and rayon. In addition, it is employed in the dyeing and scouring of cotton, wool, and silk. Ammonia serves as a catalyst in the production of Bakelite and some other synthetic resins. More importantly, it neutralizes acidic by-products of petroleum refining, and in the rubber industry it prevents the coagulation of raw latex during transportation from plantation to factory. Ammonia also finds application in both the ammonia-soda, or Solvay, process, a widely used method for producing soda ash, and the Ostwald process, a method for converting ammonia into nitric acid. Ammonia is used in various metallurgical processes, including the nitriding of alloy sheets to harden their surfaces. Because ammonia can be decomposed easily to yield hydrogen, it is a convenient
portable source of atomic hydrogen for welding. Finally, among its minor uses is inclusion in certain household cleansing agents.